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European conventions

At European level, international conventions define the obligatory measures to be applied by the signatory states in order to ensure the preservation of nature.

The protection measures for a given species are rarely adopted by all the Mediterranean countries, and often, owing to a lack of means, they are difficult to implement.

BERN CONVENTION
Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats, adopted 19 September 1979 at Bern (Switzerland).

Article 1
The aims of this Convention are to conserve wild flora and fauna and their natural habitats, especially those species and habitats whose conservation requires the co‑operation of several States, and to promote such cooperation.

Vulnerable species at risk are classified according to their conservation needs in four Appendices :
- Appendix I : species of wild flora for which are prohibited deliberate picking, collecting, cutting or uprooting. as well as the possession or sale of these species.

- Appendix II : species of wild fauna for which are prohibited :
- all forms of deliberate capture and keeping and deliberate killing ;
- the deliberate damage to or destruction of breeding or resting sites ;
- the deliberate disturbance of wild fauna, particularly during the period of breeding, rearing and hibernation, insofar as disturbance would be significant in relation to the objectives of this Convention ;
- the deliberate destruction or taking of eggs from the wild or keeping these eggs even if empty ;
- the possession of and internal trade in these animals, alive or dead, including stuffed animals and any readily recognisable part or derivative thereof, where this would contribute to the effectiveness of the provisions of this article.

- Appendix III : species of wild fauna the exploitation of which is regulated in order to keep these populations out of danger. These measures include :
- the implementation of closed seasons and/or other procedures regulating the exploitation ;
- the temporary or local prohibition of exploitation, as appropriate, in order to restore satisfactory population levels ;
- the regulation as appropriate of the sale, keeping for sale, transport for sale or offering for sale of live and dead wild animals.

- Appendix IV : means and methods of killing and capture and other means of exploitation capable of causing the disappearance of, or serious disturbance to, populations of a species, and which are prohibited.

BARCELONA CONVENTION
Protocol Concerning to Specially Protected Areas and Biological Diversity in the Mediterranean. Adopted at Barcelona on 16 February 1976 and amended at Barcelona in 1995.

Article 3
General obligations : each Party will undertake the measures necessary in order to :
-  protect, preserve and manage in a way that is sustainable and respectful of the environment areas of particular natural or cultural value, in particular by the creation of Specially Protected Areas ;
-  protect, preserve and manage endangered or threatened animal and plant species.

The vulnerable species are listed in Appendices II and III :
- Appendix II : list of endangered or threatened species.
‘Endangered species’ means any species in danger of becoming extinct throughout all or part of its range.
‘Threatened species’ means any species that is likely to become extinct in a foreseeable future throughout all or part of its range and whose survival is unlikely if the factors causing numerical decline or habitat degeneration continue to operate ;

- Appendix III : List of species the exploitation of which is regulated.

Mediterranean marine species Barcelona convention Bern convention
Mammalia

Blue and white dolphin
Stenella coeruleoalba
Balaena mysticetus
Balaenoptera acutorostrata
Balaenoptera borealis
Balaenoptera edeni
Balaenoptera musculus
Balaenoptera physalus
Delphinus delphis
Eubalaena glacialis
Globicephala macrorhynchus
Globicephala melas
Grampus griseus
Hyperoodon rostratus
Kogia breviceps
Kogia simus
Lagenorhynchus acutus
Lagenorhynchus albirostris
Megaptera novaeangliae
Mesoplodon bidens
Mesoplodon densirostris
Mesoplodon mirus
Monachus monachus
Monodon monoceros
Odobenus rosmarus
Orcinus orca
Phoca hispida ladogensis
Phoca hispida saimensis
Phocoena phocoena
Physeter macrocephalus
Pseudorca crassidens
Stenella coeruleoalba
Stenella frontalis
Steno bredanensis
Tursiops truncatus
Ziphius cavirostris

Appendix II
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Appendix II
Appendix II
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Appendix II
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Appendix II


Appendix II

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Appendix II
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Appendix II
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Appendix II
Reptilia

Loggerhead turtle
Caretta caretta
Caretta caretta
Chelonia mydas
Dermochelys coriacea
Eretmochelys imbricata
Lepidochelys kempii
Appendix II
Appendix II
Appendix II
Appendix II
Appendix II
Appendix II
Appendix II
Appendix II
Appendix II
Appendix II
Pisces

Brown meagre
Sciaena umbra
Acipenser naccarii
Acipenser sturio
Aphanius fasciatus
Aphanius iberus
Cetorhinus maximus
Carcharodon carcharias
Hippocampus ramulosus
Hippocampus hippocampus
Huso huso
Lethenteron zanandreai
Mobula mobular
Pomatoschistus canestrinii
Pomatoschistus tortonesei
Valencia hispanica
Valencia letourneuxi
Alosa alosa
Alosa fallax
Anguilla anguilla
Epinephelus marginatus
Isurus oxyrinchus
Lamna nasus
Lampetra fluviatilis
Petromyzon marinus
Prionace glauca
Raja alba
Sciaena umbra
Squatina squatina
Thunnus thynnus
Umbrina cirrosa
Xiphias gladius
Appendix II
Appendix II
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Appendix III
Appendix III
Appendix III
Appendix III
Appendix III
Appendix III
Appendix III
Appendix III
Appendix III
Appendix III
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Appendix III
Appendix III
Appendix III
Appendix III
Appendix II
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Appendix III
Appendix III
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Appendix III
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Appendix III
Crustacea

Spiny lobster
Palinurus elephas
Cirripedia, Balanomorpha
Ocypode cursor
Pachylasma giganteum
Homarus gammarus
Maja squinado
Palinurus elephas
Scyllarides latus
Scyllarus pigmaeus
Scyllarus arctus

Appendix II
Appendix II
Appendix III
Appendix III
Appendix III
Appendix III
Appendix III
Appendix III
Appendix II
Appendix II
Appendix III
Appendix III
Appendix III
Appendix III
Appendix III
Appendix III
Mollusca

Trumpet shell
Charonia lampas
Charonia lampas (= Ch. rubicunda = Ch. nodifera)
Charonia tritonis (= Ch. seguenziae)
Dendropoma petraeum
Erosaria spurca
Gibbula nivosa
Lithophaga lithophaga
Luria lurida (= Cypraea lurida)
Margaritifera auricularia
Mitra zonata
Patella ferruginea
Patella nigra
Pholas dactylus
Pinna nobilis
Pinna rudis (= P. pernula)
Ranella olearia (= Argobuccinum olearium = A. giganteum)
Schilderia achatidea
Tonna galea
Zonaria pyrum
Annexe II
Appendix II
Appendix II
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Appendix II

Appendix II
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Appendix II
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Appendix II
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Bryozoa Hornera lichenoides Annexe II
Echinodermata

Purple seastar
Ophidiaster ophidianus
Asterina pancerii
Centrostrephanus longispinus
Ophidiaster ophidianus
Appendix II
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Appendix II
Cnidaria

Bushy anenome
Gerardia savaglia
Paracentrotus lividus
Astroides calycularis
Errina aspera
Gerardia savaglia
Appendix III
Appendix II
Appendix II
Appendix II
Appendix III
Appendix II
Appendix II
Appendix II
Porifera

Axinella sponge
Axinella polypoides
Antipathes sp. plur.
Corallium rubrum
Aplysina sp. plur.
Asbestopluma hypogea
Axinella cannabina
Axinella polypoides
Geodia cydonium
Ircinia foetida
Ircinia pipetta
Petrobiona massiliana
Tethya sp. plur.
Hippospongia communis
Spongia agaricina
Spongia officinalis
Spongia zimocca
Appendix III
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Appendix II
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Appendix III
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Appendix II
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Appendix II

Appendix III
Appendix III
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Appendix III
Magnoliophyta

Posidonia flower
Posidonia oceanica
Cymodocea nodosa
Posidonia oceanica
Zostera marina
Zostera noltii

Appendix II
Appendix II
Appendix II
Appendix I
Appendix I
Appendix I
Chlorophyta Caulerpa ollivieri Annexe II Annexe I
Phaeophyta

Cystoseira
Cystoseira
Cystoseira amentacea
Cystoseira mediterranea
Cystoseira sedoides
Cystoseira spinosa
Cystoseira zosteroides
Laminaria ochroleuca
Laminaria rodriguezii
Annexe II
Appendix II
Appendix II
Appendix II
Appendix II

Appendix II
Appendix I
Appendix I
Appendix I
Appendix I
Appendix I
Appendix I
Rhodophyta

Platform of calcareous algae
Lithophyllum lichenoides
Goniolithon byssoides
Lithophyllum lichenoides
Ptilophora mediterranea
Schimmelmannia schousboei = S. ornata
Appendix II
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Appendix II
Appendix I
Appendix I
Appendix I
Appendix I